Citrus

Bergamot tree: the bergamot tree


The bergamot tree is the tree that produces bergamot, a fragrant fruit full of virtues.

In summary, what you need to know:

Last name : Citrus bergamia
Family : Rutaceae
Type : Fruit tree

Height
: 3 to 5 m
Exposure : Sunny
Ground : Well drained

Foliage
: Persistent -Flowering : November to January

Plant a bergamot tree

Planting the bergamot tree is an important step that will condition the proper development of your tree, the production of bergamot and the lifespan of the bergamot tree.

Bergamot tree in the ground :

Bergamot is one of the least hardy citrus and can only be planted outdoors in areas with a very mild winter climate.

  • Planting preferably in spring.
  • Choose a sheltered and sunny place to promote its growth and have beautiful bergamots.
  • The bergamot tree likes slightly acidic soils and especially not calcareous (a contribution of heather soil when planting is a plus)

Bergamot tree in pot :

  • The cultivation of bergamot in pots is preferable as with all citrus fruits when it freezes in your area.
  • It will take Enter it in a greenhouse or unheated veranda from October to May.
    Perform a repotting after your purchase and then every 2 to 3 years, in spring at the rate of 1/4 heather soil and 3/4 citrus soil

Maintenance of the bergamot tree

No pruning is really essential, but certain actions should allow you to improve the harvest and the growth of the bergamot tree.

After harvest, cut each new shoot in half approximately, taking care to cut just above a leaf.

Delete it dead wood as and possibly ventilate the interior of the tree to give it back light.

  • This will allow the bergamot tree to keep a nice compact shape.

Watering the bergamot tree

Pot, it is important to water as soon as the ground is dry, without flooding the pot. In times of growth, regularly bring it a organic fertilizer "Special citrus".

Avoid any heat source such as near a radiator, as this can dry out your tree.

Outdoors and in the ground, water in case of high heat or prolonged drought.

Bergamot diseases

Like many citrus fruits, bergamot and bergamot are sensitive to certain pests such as mealybugs and aphids, but also to a fungus called moniliosis, which causes rotting of fruit.

Cochineal : a whitish cluster invades the foliage of the bergamot tree
Aphids : Bergamot leaves curl up and eventually fall off
Moniliosis : bergamots rot on the bergamot tree

All you need to know about bergamot

Bergamot is much better known for its use than in perfumes, teas or herbal teas than for its taste qualities.

Bergamot is mainly cultivated in Italy, and more precisely in Calabria, where 95% of world production is produced there.

There are 4 cultivars: Fantastico, Castagnaro, Calabrese and Femminello.

Bergamot essence:

The fruit is harvested for the fragrant bergamot oil contained in its rind. It is then used both in food and in perfumery.

It is thus used in the composition of Eau de Cologne, in many perfumes, but also in the confection of Bergamot de Nancy or in the composition of many Mediterranean recipes, such as tagine.

Benefits of bergamot essential oil

Bergamot essential oil has stimulating properties for the stomach, antiseptic, antispasmodic and deworming. It is recommended in cases of intestinal colic, intestinal parasites, difficult digestion or lack of appetite.

Note, however, that bergamot essential oil contains bergapten, which has long been used in sunscreens to accelerate tanning. The carcinogenic effects of bergaptens have been recognized and it is now withdrawn before any marketing according to the standards in force.


Photo © Successo images

Video: How to Grow Wild Bergamot Bee balm - Complete Growing Guide (October 2020).